To boot of the MicroSD card I ran these on an Ubuntu 14.04 VM:

mkdir $TMPDIR && cd $TMPDIR

md5sum ubuntu-14.04.1-console-armhf-2015-01-06.tar.xz

tar xf ubuntu-14.04.1-console-armhf-2015-01-06.tar.xz
cd ubuntu-14.04.1-console-armhf-2015-01-06

sudo ./ --probe-mmc

sudo ./ --mmc /dev/sdb --dtb beaglebone

Eject the MicroSD card from your computer and put it in the beaglebone black

Hold the button closest to the MicroSD card and plug the usb cable into your computer

ssh [email protected]
# type in the password 'temppwd'

To flash the emmc (internal memory) per:

unxz BBB-eMMC-flasher-ubuntu-14.04.1-console-armhf-2015-01-06-2gb.img.xz
sudo dd if=./BBB-eMMC-flasher-ubuntu-14.04.1-console-armhf-2015-01-06-2gb.img of=/dev/sdb

"Press and hold the boot select button (next to the microSD card), then apply power. On bootup the board should indicate it has started the flashing procedure visually via a Cylon Sweep pattern shown on the 4 LED's next to the ethernet jack. Progress is reported on both the serial debug and hdmi connectors, once completed all 4 LED's should be full ON. Simply remove power, remove the microSD card and Ubuntu will now boot directly from eMMC."